So, What IS the Future of Work?
By Sydney Johnson Aug 31, 2017
From left to right: Carlos Watson, Joelle Emerson, Anant Agarwal, Harry Elam Jr.
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For many attending the Future of Work symposium on Wednesday, there wasn’t any question whether automation is going to take over jobs—but rather when, and how education should respond.
Hosted at Stanford University, the day-long event brought together dozens of minds who are thinking about what careers and skills students need to prepare for, and how an increasingly digital higher-education system will need to adapt to help get them there. Speakers including edX CEO Anant Agarwal, associate dean and director of Stanford’s Diversity and First-Gen office Dereca Blackmon, and Deborah Quazzo, a co-founder of investment firm GSV, shared their ideas on what that might look like.
Here are a few major themes we heard throughout the day:
Online courses will supplement, but not replace in-person ones
For many speakers, challenges such as tuition costs and changing workforce demands due to automation have made online courses—and for some, alternative credentials—an appealing solution. Their idea is that as jobs come and go, online platforms will be quicker than current higher-ed systems to offer training to more people.
Of course, some of the biggest champions for digital supplement courses were those creating them. Agarwal, who is also a professor at MIT, told the audience he envisions a future where students do not pay $50,000 for a college tuition, but instead “get a subscription to college” through which students might continuously acquire skills throughout their career.
I’m excited about seeing the value of arts and humanities come back in the coming years because there are some things robots cannot do
However, Coursera vice president Julia Stiglitz added that even platforms like her company’s likely won’t eliminate the traditional college model. “I don’t think the Coursera experience will replace what happens in a residential [college] experience,” she said in a panel about college majors. “I think what changes if you have all that content online freely accessible, though, is what kind of pressure gets put on the institutions… about what you should be getting out of each of these experiences.”
Arts & creativity will be in high demand
Panelists expressed concerns about not just how automation will impact manufacturing jobs, but software and computer-based careers as well. If programming and software development—today’s most in-demand and highest-paying careers, are replaced by robots—will “re-skilling” and “upskilling” be necessary in the future? Perhaps not, argued some. Instead, creative and critical-thinking skills may be even more valuable.
“I’m excited about seeing the value of arts and humanities come back in the coming years because there are some things robots cannot do,” said Farouk Dey, the dean of career education at Stanford. In a morning panel, Harry Elam Jr., senior vice provost for education at Stanford, gave an even stronger stance: “Arts are going to save the world.”
Even those coming from the corporate world tended to agree with Dey. Students currently invest a lot of money to get a computer science degree, “when that [career] might in 10 years from now be done by a computer,” noted Coursera CEO Jeff Maggioncalda. “[A CS degree] might not be the best investment for your money… I would love to see an undergrad [system] that gets more towards the liberal arts.”
Others pointed out this idea didn’t come from futurists, but rather something liberal arts colleges have long strived for:
Inclusiveness is imperative to success
“Effective learning around diversity and inclusion needs to be at the heart of what we are doing building modern enterprises,” Quazzo, who invests in education technology companies, said in a morning panel. “It is slow and tough but I am encouraged by the conversation around diversity issues… I think we are seeing some positive shots.”
Later, Blackmon explained that diversity is not the goal—it’s what exists around us, and what companies and institutions must work to reflect. Her advice and clarification to anyone looking to change systems of work and education in the future: “Diversity is a fact, inclusion is a practice and equity is the goal.”
That resonated with the audience and other speakers on her panel, which included social entrepreneur Tomás Alvarez, journalist and activist Jenara Nerenberg, reachHire’s Addie Schwartz and Kathryn Gillam, the executive director at Stanford’s distinguished careers institute.
They also recognized that diversity can take a lot of forms: from race and gender to cognitive experiences and abilities. “The neurodiversity movement is seen as another wave of the civil rights movement,” said Nerenberg, referring to efforts to include people with differences in brain function and traits.
Employers will play a larger role providing those skills and educational opportunities
The employer is the one calling the shots since they are employing, and they will play a much bigger role in the future.
With limited and decreasing financial support from government, several speakers believed that private companies will play a bigger role in providing education and education opportunities for their employees.
“It is on the employer to provide some space for [learning],” said Kristen Swanson, Slack’s director of learning. “We provide every employee with resources for professional development so they can engage outside of the work environment.” She adds that it isn’t as simple has handing over resources: “For this to become a practice, managers had to encourage employees to do this.”
Earlier in the day Maggioncalda had similar notes to share: “The learner is trying to figure out what the employer will want, because they know that’s how they get the job. Universities have been slow to figure out… but the employer is the one calling the shots since they are employing, and they will play a much bigger role in the future.”
The government ought to step up its efforts as well, said Guy Berger, LinkedIn’s economist. “If you want someone to learn new skills, our society and government need to be willing to pour into the resources to do that. It’s not fair to ask a machinist in Wisconsin… to figure this out [alone].”
15 Reflection Strategies To Help Students Retain What You Just Taught Them
15 Reflection Strategies To Help Students Retain What You Just Taught Them
by Terry Heick
Reflection is a natural part of learning.
We all think about new experiences–the camping on the car ride home, the mistakes made in a game, or the emotions felt while finishing a long-term project that’s taken months to complete.
Below I’ve shared 15 strategies for students to reflect on their learning. Modeling the use of each up front can go a long way towards making sure you get the quality of work you’d like to see throughout the year–and students learn more in the process.
This post pairs nicely with 8 Reflective Questions To Help Any Student Think About Their Learning.
15 Reflection Strategies To Help Students Retain What You Just Taught Them
Pair-share is a classic learning strategy where students are paired, and then verbally ‘share’ something that will help them learn new content, deepen understanding, or review what they already know. It can also be used as a quick and dirty assessment tool, as the conversations generally reflect a level of understanding the teacher can use gauge mastery and plan further instruction.
2. Sentence Stem-based responses
Sentence-stems are great because they’re like training wheels–or to mix a metaphor, tools to coach students into thinking and speaking in certain patterns. For example, you can implore students to ‘think critically,’ but if they don’t have even the basic phrasing of critical thinking (e.g., ‘This is important because…’), critical thinking will be beyond their reach.
You can also see our sentence stems for critical thinking here for other examples (you don’t have to buy the materials to see the samples).
3. Layered Text
Layered text is something I’ve meant to write about for years and never have. A layered text is a digital document that is filled with hyperlinks that communicate, well, just about anything: Questions students have, opportunities for further inquiry, odd references and allusions that reflect the schema students use to make meaning, and so on. (Rap Genius does a version of this.)
By adding ‘layers’ of meaning to a text through meaningful hyperlinking, students can reflect back on anything, from a pre-assessment journal entry that demonstrated their lack of understanding, to a kind of ‘marking up’ of what they learned when, and from where.
140 characters forces students to reflect quick and to the point–great for brief bursts of reflection or hesitatant writers who would struggle to write meaningful journal entries or essays.
In fact, you can combine twitter with #6 for twitter exit slips.
3-2-1 is a tried-and-true way to frame anything from a pair-share or journal entry (e.g., ask students to write 3 things they think they know, 2 things they know they don’t know, and one thing they’re certain of about a topic) pre-assessment to a post-assessment (e.g., list three ways your essay reflected mastery of skill X, two ways skill Y still needs improving, and one way you can make your argument stronger in the next five minutes) to a reflection of the post-assessment.
6. Exit Slips
Whether you call them exit slips, exit tickets, or something I’ve never heard, asking students to briefly leave behind some residue of learning–a thought, a definition, a question–is a powerful teaching strategy. In fact, ‘exit-slip teaching’ literally drives how I use data in the classroom. Asking students to drop some bit of reflection of the learning process on a chair by the door on the way out is a no-brainer.
How did you respond emotionally to something you struggled with today? What did you find most surprising about _____? How did your understanding of _______ change today? What about _____ still confuses you or makes your curious?
I love write-arounds–easy ways for students to write asynchronously and collaboratively. And the writing fragments students use don’t have to be prose–certain key vocabulary and phrases can help students reflect, but most importantly in a write-around, help students learning from one another as each student is able to read other responses before creating theirs.
Whether by sketch-notes or doodles, allowing students to draw what they think they know, how they believe their learning has changed, or some kind of metaphorical pathway towards deeper understanding is a great learning strategy for students that tend towards creative expression, and a non-threatening way for struggling students to at least write something down on paper you can use to gauge understand and plan your (their) next step.
Through podcasting as a reflecting strategy, students will talk about their learning while recording. If you want to keep it ‘closed-circuit’ (not published), or actually push it to a public audience of some kind depends on the learning and students and privacy issues and so on.
This can also be simply an audio file recorded and uploaded to a private YouTube channel that’s shared with teachers or parents.
Brainstorming can be an effective reflection strategy because it disarms issues with other approaches. For hesitant writers, journaling may not work beucase the writing process could overwhelm the learning. Podcasting may not work for shy students, Pair-Share may not work well if students are paired effectively, and so on.
Brainstorming is much simpler. Students could take an allotted time to write down everything they remember about a topic. Or, they could brainstorm questions they still have (things they’re confused or curious about). They could even brainstorm how what what they learned literally connects with what they already know by creating a concept map.
Jigsawing is a grouping strategy where a task, concept, or something ‘larger’ is broken down into small puzzles pieces, and students in groups analyze the small puzzle piece, then share out to create the puzzle at large. Using this approach for reflection is seamless: Among other approaches, you can prompt students in groups to gather and share questions they have (you could group by readiness/ability, for example) in groups, and then choose one question that they weren’t able to answer among themselves with the whole class (anonymously–no one has to know who wrote the question).
Think of a cross between a sketch, collage, and presentation, and you have a prezi. Engaging–though distracting and overwhelming if the reflection you need is minor–reflection tool that allows students to create an artifact of learning for their digital portfolios.
This reflection strategy is close to ‘Podcasting’ and even has something in common with pair-sharing. By reflecting through vlog’ing, students simply talk about their learning to a camera.
This approach would be successful for students that love talking to a camera, but less so for others (who, if they have to talk at all about their learning, may prefer podcasting–or simply recording audio files that are never published.
You could do a normal collage of learning reflections, but Amultimedia collage is also possible–maybe a sketchnote with a voiceover recorded as a YouTube video to share as a quick presentation with the class (or absent students).
The University of Missouri-St Louis offers 3 kinds of journals that demonstrate the different possibilities of the otherwise vanilla-sounding ‘journaling.’
1. Personal Journal – Students will write freely about their experience. This is usually done weekly. These personal journals may be submitted periodically to the instructor, or kept as a reference to use at the end of the experience when putting together an academic essay reflecting their experience. (Hatcher 1996)
2. Dialogue Journal – Students submit loose-leaf pages from a dialogue journal bi-weekly (or otherwise at appropriate intervals) for the instructor to read and comment on. While labor intensive for the instructor, this can provide continual feedback to students and prompt new questions for students to consider during the semester. (Goldsmith, 1995)
3. Highlighted Journal – Before students submit the reflective journal, they reread personal entries and, using a highlighter, mark sections of the journal that directly relate to concepts discussed in the text or in class. This makes it easier for the instructor to identify the student to reflect on their experience in light of course content. (Gary Hesser, Augsberg College)
15 Strategies For Students To Reflect On Their Learning; image attribution Flickr user woodleywonderworks
Tai Lopez Shares 7 Steps to Launch a Business With No Money or Experience
Mary Delaney – The Oracles
Last year, 310 out of 100,000 people on average created new businesses each month in the U.S., according to the 2017 Kauffman Index of Startup Activity. Most entrepreneurs start businesses out of opportunity rather than necessity.
We asked investor, philanthropist, and member of The Oracles, Tai Lopez, for his take on how to capitalize on an opportunity and launch a business. If you’re unfamiliar with Lopez, he advises many multimillion-dollar businesses and is a social media marketing expert. In the last year, his Facebook following has grown from 600,000 to over six million.
“Thanks to modern technology, it’s possible to go from idea to paying customers within a short amount of time,” Lopez explains. “But most never get started because it’s overwhelming.”
Here’s how to get started:
1. Pick an idea that works for you.
“Most people think they know what they’re good at,” wrote Peter Drucker in Managing Oneself. “They are usually wrong.”
“That’s the most important principle I ever learned,” says Lopez. “A lot of entrepreneurs can’t figure out why their business is failing. But you can only build on strength. ‘Doing what you love’ usually only works for hobbies. Don’t build a business around your weakness.
“I love basketball, but I’m not good enough to play professionally. If I tried to pursue it as a career, I’d fail financially. So, I play basketball as a hobby but build businesses around things that come naturally to me: public speaking, making videos, and social media marketing.”
Lopez says take the time to become more self-aware. “If you’re talkative and like asking questions, maybe start a podcast or host events. If you’re organized, becoming a virtual assistant can be lucrative.”
2. Spot trends.
Another reason why startups fail, according to Lopez, is because the founder ignores trends.
“For example, small businesses struggle with social media. More adults are ditching college for jobs. People want practical skills to get paid immediately. So, I created a multimillion-dollar business that teaches people how to manage social media for small businesses.
“View problems as opportunities to help people out. You’ll earn money as a reward for your solution and get paid in proportion to the problems you solve.”
3. Launch quickly.
Lopez shares what his first mentor, Joel Salatin, told him at 19 years old: “Tai, sometimes good enough is perfect.”
This philosophy means building prototypes that are just good enough versions to test in the market. “The biggest mistake new entrepreneurs make is creating something that no one wants to buy.
“By using prototyping, you focus on creating something that people will pay for, quickly and cheaply. ‘Speed of launch’ combats procrastination. We procrastinate because of perfectionism about the initial launch. Then we lose interest, and the project never gets off the ground.”
Never forget: Good enough is perfect.
4. Pivot around what customers want.
Lopez explains how entrepreneurs can learn a lot from Apple and Kodak. The iPhone has continually evolved from user requests and continues to dominate the smartphone market.
Conversely, although Kodak was the top photography brand for over a century and once “sure bet” stock, they ignored early warnings and didn’t pivot fast enough for the digital world. By 2012, the company went bankrupt.
“When it comes to growing your business, don’t fall in love with your idea. The idea gets you started but be willing to change. Improve your idea through experiments and tests. Otherwise, you’ll fail.”
5. Optimize your pricing.
“Most businesses get their pricing structure wrong,” says Lopez.
“In the book ‘Smart Pricing,’ two Wharton professors analyzed all the things you can do for positive repercussions for your business. Optimizing price is first. Most businesses’ prices are way too low or high.
“If you study economics, it’s the study of allocating scarce resources. Unless you’re a Saudi sheikh, most people only have a limited amount of money.
“So, focus on testing different prices to ensure demand for your offer. If people won’t pay a penny, shut the business down or do a massive pivot.
“But if the product sells well—or you can charge a premium price over similar products in the market—you’re ready to scale.”
To scale, Lopez says you need two things: viral free marketing and paid advertising. But your product has to be good for it to work.
“The billionaire Charlie Munger said, ‘You can’t polish a turd.’ Some people try to advertise a turd idea. It doesn’t work.”
But you can polish a good idea. “If your idea is good, employ some controversy, humor, and drama in your marketing for free virality.” Lopez recently uploaded a highly provocative Instagram post to market his clothing line.
“Once you have a hit product that’s going viral, invest in paid boosting. Most people try to boost too early, which is an expensive mistake. You’re trying to boost something that people don’t resonate with.”
7. Use a trainer.
Lopez recognizes that all world-class performers use trainers, coaches, and mentors. He applies the same principle to his own life. His basketball coach, Pooh Richardson, was an NBA pro basketball player for 10 years. His personal trainer is 2016 Mr. Olympia, Danny Hester. And his Brazilian Jiu Jitsu coach is Rigan Machado, widely regarded as one of the top competitors in the sport’s history.
“Regardless of the business you start, a mentor answers the stuff you can’t find online. They’ll cut your learning curve by years. Their personal experience calms and guides you through.
“There are three options when getting trained: in person (the best), online or books (easiest), or none (avoid).”
If you want to learn how to start your business in one to eight weeks, Lopez is offering a free training video on his website for Entrepreneur readers.
How to Win an Argument, According to Science (Infographic)
Courtneyk | Getty Images
an hour ago
Whether you’re right or wrong, winning an argument can be a challenge. Luckily, with a few simple tricks, you can learn how to debate like a pro.
For starters, rather than coming off aggressively, start a conversation. Having a two-way discussion will show the other person that you’re open to hearing their ideas, and in turn, they’ll likely be eager to hear yours. You should also always let them speak first and ask them open-ended questions.
Next, mirror your opponent and mimic the way they are positioned. Be sure not to make it too obvious, but if you see them sitting cross-legged, then do the same. According to research, people are more likely to believe someone who is positioned the same way as them. Of course, always make direct eye contact, and once they’re finished speaking, repeat some of the most important points they were trying to make so you know that you fully understand their point of view.
Now it’s your turn. When it comes to making your case, make sure you have all of your facts straight, use evidence such as studies to support your argument, end your questions with affirmative questions such as “right?” and “wouldn’t you?” and of course, never raise your voice.
To learn how you can always win an argument, check out SavingSpot’s infographic below.
Rose Leadem is an online editorial assistant at Entrepreneur Media Inc.